Ancient sword discovered by a scuba diver off the coast of Israel may have been dropped in the sea by a Crusader knight 900 years ago

Posted on

An ancient sword discovered by a scuba diver off the coast of Israel may have been dropped in the sea by a Crusader knight 900 years ago, researchers claim.

The 3ft long weapon was found on the Mediterranean seabed in a natural cove near the port city of Haifa, according to the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA). 

Despite being encrusted with marine organisms, the hilt and handle were distinctive enough for an ‘eagle-eyed’ amateur diver to notice, after undercurrents apparently shifted sands that had concealed it for almost a millennia.

The natural cover in which the sword was discovered likely served as a shelter for seafarers passing through, said Kobi Sharvit, from the IAA marine archaeology unit. 

‘These conditions have attracted merchant ships down the ages, leaving behind rich archaeological finds,’ he said.

The sword, believed to be around 900 years old, will be put on display after it has been cleaned and restored to its former glory.

The sword was spotted about 650ft offshore near the city of Haifa and about 13ft deep and is in ‘remarkably good condition’, despite being over 900 years old.

Even though only its general shape can be seen, Sharvit is confident it dates back to the time of the Crusades. 

The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought between 1095 and 1291, in which Christian invaders tried to claim the near East. 

It was found among a range of other objects, including pottery fragments and a number of stone and metal anchors by diver Shlomi Katzin, who brought the blade to the surface and reported the find to the IAA, fearing it would be recovered if left.

‘The sword, which has been preserved in perfect condition, is a beautiful and rare find and evidently belonged to a Crusader knight,’ IAA’s Robbery Prevention Unit Inspector Nir Distelfeld told Jerusalem Post.

‘It was found encrusted with marine organisms but is apparently made of iron. 

‘It is exciting to encounter such a personal object, taking you 900 years back in time to a different era, with knights, armor and swords.’ 

The knight crusaders were spurred on by the desire to liberate holy sites from Muslim rule, encouraged by the Catholic Church and initiated by European nations.

Waters surrounding the Carmel Coast, near where the sword was discovered, were sailed by thousands of boats between the 11th and 13th centuries. 

There are many natural coves in the area that sheltered sailors, including crusading knights sailing in ships to the holy land, during a heavy storm.

‘Larger coves around which entire settlements and ancient port cities developed, such as Dor and Atlit,’ were also in the area, said Sharvit.

‘These conditions have attracted merchant ships down the ages, leaving behind rich archaeological finds. The recently recovered sword is just one such find.’

The site where the sword was found was already known to the IAA because it was used as a natural anchor point going back as far as 4,000 years ago — to the late Bronze Age. 

‘Underwater surveying is dynamic,’ said Sharvit. ‘Even the smallest storm moves the sand and reveals areas on the seabed, meanwhile burying others. 

‘It is therefore vitally important to report any such finds and we always try to document them in situ, in order to retrieve as much archaeological data as possible.’ 

in dailymail.co.uk

Podemos Precisar de Si – 2021

Posted on Updated on

O Verão de 2021 tem sido marcado por violentos incêndios florestais em várias regiões do Mediterrâneo, incluindo partes da Turquia, Itália, Espanha e Grécia. Grandes áreas de floresta foram devastadas, habitações, explorações agrícolas e industriais arrasadas pelo fogo, tendo-se registado múltiplas vítimas mortais.

Em Portugal a época de incêndios é habitualmente severa. Em resposta às necessidades das forças de Protecção Civil e Bombeiros, os Templários do Algarve reuniram ao seu redor os esforços de muitos irmãos e irmãs de todo o país numa operação realizada durante os incêndios de Monchique em 2018 que resultou na criação de um Centro Logístico permanente para activação situações idênticas [templars.wordpress.com/2018/08/07/podemos-precisar-de-si/].

Um incêndio florestal de grandes proporções tem lavrado nos Concelhos de Castro Marim, Vila Real de Santo António e Tavira nas últimas 48 horas, assolado por ventos fortes e ameaçando habitações e populações em várias localidades.

À última contagem estavam envolvidos no combate às diversas frentes do incêndio mais de 600 bombeiros, muitas dezenas de viaturas e 5 meios aéreos. A área ardida ultrapassava já os 9.000 hectares numa taxa de expansão de 650 hectares por hora.

Ao longo das últimas horas foram lançados diversos apelosc oficiais para a disponibilização de bens de apoio aos operacionais no terreno. Apesar da resposta pronta das diversas Autarquias e Associações locais, a situação tem-se agravado, pelo que o Templar Corps considera relevante activar o seu Centro Logístico e colocar-se ao serviço das populações locais e das forças de Protecção Civil.


Apelamos a todos os nossos membros, amigos, simpatizantes e a todas as pessoas preocupadas com a situação dos incêndios florestais a contribuir com bens do seguinte teor:

  • – Garrafas de água
  • – Leite
  • – Bolachas
  • – Enlatados
  • – Barras de energia
  • – Toalhitas húmidas
  • – Soro fisiológico
  • – Meias
  • – Luvas de trabalho
  • – Medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica


ATENÇÃO: Não são aceites contribuições em dinheiro; apenas os géneros elencados acima.

As contribuições em género poderão ser entregues nos seguintes locais:

Contacto: Rui Herdadinha, tel / mail

Sede do Corpo de Serviço Templário – Algarve
Rua dos Serralheiros, Lote 3, Sitio do Pateiro Zona Industrial, 8400-651 Parchal
Contacto: Jorge Amador, tel: 96.701.78.36
Facebook: facebook.com/TemplarCorpsAlgarve/

Recolha a fazer na 5ª feira, pelas 18h no parque da Gare do Oriente
Contacto: Miguel da Fabiana, tel: 91.750.04.02


Pode encontrar o Apelo Oficial do Templar Corps International AQUI.

Pode encontrar o Documento de Apelo AQUI.




Jornal de Notícias

Fr+ William MacCallum, former Archivist of the Magisterial Council of the OSMTHU passes away

Posted on

It’s with great sadness that we receive news of the passing of Fr+ Robert MacCallum of the Grand Priory of Australia. Fr+ MacCallum served as a member of the Magisterial Council as Archivist since 1999, under Master Fernando de Toro-Garland and later under Master Antonio Paris.

Fr+ Andrew Foster of Tasmania, Australia, says “William was taken into a nursing home in about August/September last year he started out with early signs of Alzhiemers Disease. He suffered a number of falls causing his condition to slowly worsen. Late September early October he was rushed to hospital and was diagnosed with cancer.”

For many years Fr+ MacCallum has been one of the most respected and beloved members of the Order internationally. His contribution to the compilation of the early Statutes and Bylaws of the OSMTHU was fundamental. His absence will be missed by all. Our prayers go to Sr. Anne, family, friends and brethren in Australia.

Middle Ages Merlin manuscript found in Bristol University library

Posted on

Fragments of a manuscript from the Middle Ages which tell the story of Merlin the magician from Arthurian legend have been found in a library.

Seven hand-written fragments were found by the University of Bristol’s special collections librarian.

Specialists analysing the pieces said they contained “subtle but significant” differences from the traditional story.

“We are all very excited to discover more,” said Dr Leah Tether, of the International Arthurian Society.

The pieces of parchment were discovered by librarian Michael Richardson, who recognised a number of Arthurian names and contacted Dr Tether.

The newly-discovered text has longer, more detailed descriptions of various characters particularly during battles.

“These fragments of the story of Merlin are a wonderfully exciting find, which may have implications for the study not just of this text but also of other related and later texts that have shaped our modern understanding of the Arthurian legend,” said Dr Tether.

The books in which the fragments were found were all printed in Strasbourg between 1494 and 1502.

A team of experts will try to find out how and when the books came to England in order to be able to trace the origin of the parchments.

Dr Tether said: “Time and research will reveal what further secrets about the legends of Arthur, Merlin and the Holy Grail these fragments might hold.”

She added it was “all the more special” to find the fragments in the South West because of its locations made famous by the Arthurian legend.

in bbc.com/news

VN Barquinha acolhe II Conferência Internacional sobre Templários

Posted on Updated on

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is vnb-templarios-CITA-IMG_1538-1320x880.jpg

Depois do sucesso da 1ª conferência internacional sobre “Ordem do Templo – Cavalaria Espiritual – Templarismo”, realizada em outubro de 2019 em Vila Nova da Barquinha, o município anunciou para dia 13 de outubro o arranque da II Conferência Internacional, com evocação do 13 de outubro de 1307, data relevante para a história templária.

“Quando se fala em Vila Nova da Barquinha, falamos de património, história, paisagem e memória. Aqui encontramos um dos ex-libris da Ordem do Templo e dos Cavaleiros Templários – o Castelo de Almourol, fortaleza medieval, numa ilha cercada pelo rio Tejo, símbolo de prestígio e um marco na história de Portugal. Todos os recursos a ele associados, com a junção do Centro do Interpretação Templário de Almourol e da Biblioteca Templária, agregam parâmetros de qualidade que permitem ajudar ao desenvolvimento uma nova imagem turística da região na Europa e no mundo. Por isso a 2.ª conferência internacional é tão importante para nós”, disse ao mediotejo,net o presidente do município de Vila Nova da Barquinha, Fernando Freire.

Vão participar na II Conferência anual Luis Miguel Preto Batista, Marta Ataíde, Nuno Villamariz Oliveira, Virgílio Alves, Ernesto Jana, Manuel J. Gandra, Luís de Matos, Luís Fonseca, João Pedro Silva, António Paris (Itália), Victor Padilla Nieto, (Espanha), Marija Karbic e Damir Karbic (Croácia), sendo as intervenções publicadas em formato digital.

“Devido à situação e pandemia que vivemos todas as intervenções serão em formato on-line. Todavia, em Vila Nova da Barquinha, será feita a evocação singela do 13 de outubro de 1307, data em que Filipe IV “O Belo” prende em França os cavaleiros templários pretendendo derrubar a Ordem. Estarão presentes um número restrito de membros e serão cumpridas as normas da DGS para eventos culturais”, avançou Fernando Freire.

Por fim será inaugurada, em 18 de novembro, a exposição sobre o tema “A Morte – Exéquias e Ritos de Tumulação dos Cavaleiros do Templo e de Cristo” esta já com abertura ao público.

Em 2019, recorde-se, reuniram-se naquela vila ribeirinha, de 11 a 13 de outubro, os maiores especialistas mundiais na temática Templária, com oradores oriundos de França, Itália, Espanha, Estados Unidos e Portugal.

O evento serviu para unir as duas principais organizações mundiais de Templários, a Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolimitani Universalis (OSMTHU) e a Ordre Sovereign et Militaiire du Temple de Jerusalem (OSMTJ), que ali assumiram o compromisso de trabalhar em conjunto no plano cultural, usando o Centro de Interpretação Templário (CITA) da Barquinha como “lugar de estudo, discussão e partilha de conhecimentos”.

Por Mário Rui Fonseca; Mediotejo.net

The Knights Templar Rulebook Included No Pointy Shoes and No Kissing Mom

Posted on Updated on

Their code of conduct was designed to keep the warrior-knights humble, chaste and—most of all—obedient.

How often do we get a nitty-gritty view into the daily life of a medieval knight—one based on fact and not misty mythology?

The Templars, founded in 1119 as a band of poor, pious knights, have been romantically reimagined in art, literature, film and folklore for centuries. The fact that they were shockingly villainized and disbanded in 1307—after a dizzying rise to wealth and power—only added to their legendary mystique.

But the brotherhood did leave its share of concrete historic record. Perhaps most fascinating: “The Rule of the Templars,” which outlined a detailed code of conduct governing every aspect of daily life, including clothing (spartan), meals (mostly silent), sleeping arrangements (austere), social restrictions (ample). There’s a good-sized section on penance, which was especially important for maintaining the order’s all-important discipline. The first draft, composed in 1129, dictated 68 rules designed to keep Templar knights on a tight leash, reflecting their vows of poverty, chastity and especially obedience. As the order grew bigger, more wealthy and more militarized, its disciplinary code expanded to several hundred rules and became increasingly complex.

Written in Latin and French by various authors over the course of a century and a half, the original rules documents no longer exist. But they are known through subsequent translations.

And what happened to knights when the rules weren’t followed? According to the code, comeuppance ranged from corporal punishment to losing one’s habit (knight’s robes) to banishment from the brotherhood. Lesser infractions sometimes required the sinner to eat his meals on the floor.

Below, a few of the more notable Templar rules:


Two to a bowl
*Because of the shortage of bowls, the brothers will eat in pairs, so that one may study the other more closely, and so that neither austerity nor secret abstinence is introduced into the communal meal. And it seems just to us that each brother should have the same ration of wine in his cup.

Meat in moderation
*It should be sufficient for you to eat meat three times a week, except at Christmas, All Saints, the Assumption, and the feast of the twelve apostles. For it is understood that the custom of eating flesh corrupts the body.

No leaving the table—unless it’s a real emergency
*If the brothers are eating at table and any of them suffers a nosebleed, or the war cry is raised, or there is a fire or the horses are unsettled, to avoid harm to the house, they may get up from the table without permission, for all these things, and then return to eating at the table if they wish.

When in the proverbial doghouse, eat on the floor
*While a brother is on penance…when he eats, he should sit on the ground before the household.

Napkin use: It’s complicated 
*On Good Friday, all the brothers should fast on bread and water and eat without a napkin; moreover, the tables should be washed before the bread is put on them; and brothers of the Temple should eat without a napkin on no other day unless it is in penance on the floor, for then should eat on a piece of his mantle and without a napkin.


Wearing chastity on your sleeve
*All brothers’ habits should always be of one color, that is, white or black or brown. And we grant all knight brothers in winter and in summer, if possible, white cloaks…so that those who have abandoned the life of darkness will recognize each other to being reconciled to their creator by the sign of the white habits: which signifies purity and complete chastity.

Keeping it humble
*These robes should be without finery and without any show of pride…No brother will have a piece of fur on his clothes…And if any brother out of feeling of pride or arrogance wishes to have as his due a better and finer habit, let him be given the worst.

Forbidden footwear
*We prohibit pointed shoes and shoe-laces and forbid any brother to wear them… For it is manifest and well known that these abominable things belong to pagans.

Warm-weather alternatives
*Among the other things, we mercifully rule that, because of the great intensity of the heat which exists in the East, from Easter to All Saints, through compassion and in no way as right, a linen shirt shall be given to any brother who wishes to wear it.

The well-dressed head
*No brother may wear a hood on his head. No brother may wear a coif without a cloth cap.

Of horses, humility and hand-me-downs
*We utterly forbid any brother to have gold or silver on his bridle, nor on his stirrups, nor on his spurs. If it happens that a harness is given to him in charity which is so old that the gold or silver is tarnished, that the resplendent beauty is not seen by others nor taken pride in them: then he may have them.

Take care of it…or lose it
*No brother should hang his mantle round his bed on hooks, for each brother is obliged to honor his habit.

*If a brother tears or gives back his habit willingly, he should not recover it for a year and a day.



Watch out for the ladies
*The company of women is a dangerous thing, for by it the old devil has led many from the straight path to Paradise. Henceforth, let not ladies be admitted into the house of the Temple, that is why, very dear brothers, henceforth it is not fitting to follow this custom, that the flower of chastity is always maintained among you.

Even mom and dear aunt Heloise
*We believe it to be a dangerous thing for any religious to look too much upon the face of woman. For this reason none of you may presume to kiss a woman, be it widow, young girl, mother, sister, aunt or any other; and henceforth the Knighthood of Jesus Christ should avoid at all costs the embraces of women, by which men have perished many times, so that they may remain eternally before the face of God with a pure conscience and sure life.

They meant it
*If a brother is found guilty of lying with a woman, and we hold guilty the brother who is found in a wicked place or in a wicked house with a wicked woman, he may not keep the habit and so he should be put in irons, nor shall he ever carry the piebald banner or take part in the election of a Master.

Don’t even talk about the fairer sex
*We prohibit and firmly forbid any brother to recount to another brother nor to anyone else….the pleasures of the flesh that he has had with immoral women; and if it happens that he hears them told by another brother, he should immediately silence him; and if he cannot do this, he should straightaway leave that place and not give his heart’s ear to the pedlar of filth.

Kids? Avoid them too
*We forbid all brothers henceforth to dare to raise children over the font and none should be ashamed to refuse to be godfathers or godmothers; this shame brings more glory than sin.


Jesus hearts a well-behaved brother
*In order to carry out their holy duties and gain the glory of the Lord’s joy and to escape the fear of hell-fire, it is fitting that all brothers who are professed strictly obey their Master. For nothing is dearer to Jesus Christ than obedience.

Master, may I have a bath?
*No brother may bathe, let blood, take medicine, go into town or ride a horse without permission.

On a tight leash…even for small adjustments
*No brother may shorten his stirrup leathers, nor his girth, nor his sword belt, nor his breech-girdle without permission; but he may adjust his buckle without permission.

Ask first before using straps
*No brother should carry his hauberk (chainmail tunic) or his iron hose in a bag, neither in a guarelle nor in a profinel, but he should carry it in a leather or wire mesh bag; moreover, he should not hang the wire mesh bag by the straps in order to carry his hauberk, but he should carry it in his hand for as long as he or a sergeant can each hold it; and with permission he may hold it or hang it by the straps.

Careful with that gear
*No brother may throw his lance without permission, nor may he repair his sword without permission, nor his chapeau de fer (wide-brimmed helmet), nor his coat of mail, nor throw his chapeau de fer.

Here today…gone tomorrow…deal with it
*The Master shall give to whomsoever he pleases the horse and armor and whatever he likes of another brother, and the brother to whom the given thing belongs should not become vexed or angry: for be certain that if he becomes angry he will go against God.

Keeping outside influences at bay
*Without the consent of the Master or of his commander, let no brother have letters from his relative or any other person; but if he has permission, and if it please the Master or the commander, the letters may be read to him.

Poverty isn’t just a concept
*None may carry or keep money without permission. When a brother asks any brother…for money to buy something, he should buy as soon as possible that for which he asks it, and he may not buy anything else without permission.

You can’t take it with you anyway
*If it happens that a brother dies, and money is found on him, in his habit or night clothes or in his pouch, it will be considered his and stolen. And these wicked brothers should not be buried with the other good brothers who have gone from this world, nor should they be placed in hallowed ground, and the brothers are not obliged to say paternosters for them, nor to perform the office that they should perform for a dead brother; but they should have him buried like a slave.

Fixer-uppers okay
*If a brother builds a new house of stone or lime without the permission of the Master or of the Commander of the Land, the habit is at the discretion of the brothers, whether to take it from him or let him keep it. But other ruined houses he may repair without permission.



Beware brothers in the dark
*And if possible, the house where they sleep and take lodging should not be without light at night, so that shadowy enemies may not lead them to wickedness, which God forbids them.

Expect major penance…
*If a brother is tainted with the filthy, stinking sin of sodomy, which is so filthy and so stinking and so repugnant that it should not be named.

Maybe it’s best to bundle up at bedtime
*You should always sleep in a shirt and breeches and in woolen hose, and belted with a small belt; and you should have on your bed three pieces of linen, that is to say a bag in which to put straw and two sheets, and in place of one sheet you may have a light blanket if the Draper wishes to give it to you.


Charge in battle only with a commander’s say-so
*If a brother who is in battle charges without permission, and harm comes of it, the habit is at the discretion of the brothers, whether to take it from him or let him keep it. But if he sees a Christian in peril of death, and his conscience tells him that he can help him, he may do so. But in no circumstances should a brother of the Temple charge without permission.

Beware banner infractions
*If a brother of the Temple who carries the banner in battle lowers it in order to strike, and no harm comes of it, the habit is at the discretion of the brothers, whether to take it from him or let him keep it. And if he strikes with it and harm comes of it, he may not keep his habit, and so it may be decided to put him in irons; he may never carry the banner or be a commander in battle

Save a life? Fine, keep quiet
*And if it happens by chance that any Christian acts foolishly, and any Turk attacks him in order to kill him, and he is in peril of death, and anyone who is in that area wishes to leave his squadron to help him, and his conscience tells him that he can assist him, he may do so without permission, then return to his squadron quietly and in silence.



Holy relics need special attention
*When the True Cross is transported by horse, the Commander of Jerusalem and the ten knights should guard it day and night, and should camp as near to the True Cross as they can for as long as the journey lasts; and each night two brothers should keep watch over the True Cross; and if it happens that camp is established, everyone should lodge with the convent.

Staying within bell range
*When the brothers are in camp they should not go out for pleasure without permission, except as far as they can hear the call or the bell, nor even to their dwellings, except as far as they can hear the bell. Nor may they even carry any baggage on their horses, near or far, without permission.

No rogue hunting
*And let it be known that the brother should not search for any food except what is given communally, except green vegetables from the fields, or fish if they know how to catch them themselves, or wild animals if they know how to take them without hunting, in such a way that they do not transgress the commandments of the house.

Share with your neighbor
*Each brother may give some of the food in front of him to the other brothers around him, as far as he can stretch his arm, but no farther; and always he who has the best should invite the one who has the worst.


A head held high
*Each brother should strive to live honestly and to set a good example to secular people and other orders in everything, in such as way that those who see him cannot notice anything bad in his behavior, not in his riding, nor in his walking, nor in his drinking, nor in eating nor in his look, nor in any of actions and work. And especially should each brother strive to conduct himself humbly and honestly when he hears the office of Our Lord.

Brothers should be seen…
*When the brothers come out of compline (night prayers) they have no permission to speak openly except in an emergency. But let each go to his bed quietly and in silence.

Stick it out at chapel
*Each brother is required to hear the hours in their entirety, and no brother should leave the chapel until these hours are finished, except for a task which he cannot avoid, or if he goes in search of the one who has the place next to him in the chapel, whom he should seek if he has not come when the office is begun, and so he should look for him at least in his bed or with his horses.


Note to squires: Be charitable
*To each knight brother we grant three horses and one squire, and if that squire willingly serves charity, the brother should not beat him for any sin he commits.

Beat, yes; maim, no
*No craftsman brother, neither one from the prison, nor any other, should strike a slave in such a way that he places irons round his neck without permission, if he has deserved it; none should should put him in a pillory nor pierce him with a sword without permission; but he should beat him and may without permission with a leather strap if he has deserved it, but he should take care not to maim him.



Gambling (without money, of course)
*None should place a wager, not on a horse nor anything else, except an arrow without iron, or anything else which does not cost him or anyone else money, like an open lantern, or wooden mallet, or camping or tent pegs….And each brother of the Temple may wager against another brother, with his crossbow, ten pieces of candle without permission, but no more.

Board games banned
*No brother should play chess, backgammon or eschaçons.


The paupers’ feet
*Wherever the Master is on Maundy Thursday (the Thursday before Easter), he should wash the feet of 13 paupers, and should give to each of them shirt and breeches, two loaves of bread, two deniers and a pair of shoes. And if he is in a place where he does not have them, when he comes to the first of the house of the Temple where he has them, he should give them, for love of God.

Clean them til they’re kissable
*And the brother should wash the paupers’ feet and dry them with the towels, and afterwards kiss their feet humbly. And let it be known that the Almoner should ensure that those paupers who are to be washed do not have any vile disease on their feet or legs; for perhaps it could bring illness to a brother’s body.


Taking to the floor
*Of all the brothers who are given a penance in the presence of the Master, none may rise from the floor unless he is raised by him; and the brothers may pardon them from manual labor and fasting, but may not raise them from the floor and Friday fasting.

Toe the line or else
*If a brother refuses to carry out the commandment of the house and persists in the folly and does not wish to carry out the commandments he has been given, the habit should be taken from him and should be put in irons.

No cross for you! 
*When a brother is on penance….he should work with the slaves, and when he eats he should sit on the ground before the household and eat of their food, and always wear a cope (heavy hooded cloak) without a cross.

Hands off the brothers
*If a brother lays his hands on another brother out of anger or wrath, he should not keep his habit; and if the blow is serious, he may be put in irons.

Or a fellow Christian
*Whoever strikes a Christian man or woman with a sharp weapon, or with a stone or staff, or anything a blow from which could kill or wound him, the habit is at the mercy of the brothers.

Going AWOL
*If a brother leaves the house and sleeps two nights outside the house, he loses his habit, and he may not recover it for a year and a day. And if he keeps the things which are forbidden, more than two nights, he is expelled from the house.


La misteriosa relación de la casa más antigua de Toledo y los templarios

Posted on Updated on


La casa del Temple, la que podría ser la casa más antigua de Toledo mejor conservada (data de los siglos XI-XII), podrá visitarse este sábado 18 de marzo de forma gratuita, tras la última restauración realizada en los alfarjes de su planta primera, compuestos por vigas «de las más antiguas de España».

La jornada gratuita de puertas abiertas forma parte del programa «Patrimonio desconocido», impulsada por el Consorcio dentro de las actividades organizadas con motivo del 30 Aniversario de Toledo Ciudad Patrimonio de la Humanidad, según ha informado el Ayuntamiento una en nota de prensa. Cada mes se visita y se da a conocer un espacio histórico rehabilitado que normalmente está cerrado al público. El último fue la fuente de Cristina Iglesias en el Convento de Santa Clara.

Rosana Rodríguez, concejala de Turismo, asegura que uno de los objetivos del 30 aniversario es abrir espacios desconocidos para «el disfrute» de los toledanos y también de los turistas y que, gracias a ello, se puede conocer una representación de la arquitectura civil de los siglos XI y XII salvada después de «tantos» siglos de historia. En este caso, la jornada de puertas abiertas se celebrará el sábado 18 de marzo, de 10:00 a 14:00 y de 16:00 a 18:00 horas, en la calle Soledad, número 2.

La cruz de Malta, en una de las ventanas de la Casa Temple
La cruz de Malta, en una de las ventanas de la Casa Temple

El Consorcio ha intervenido para llevar a cabo la restauración de los alfarjes de la planta primera que «no se habían terminado de limpiar y proteger» en la rehabilitación de 1997, en la que parte del artesonado de la Casa del Temple, según ha avanzado el presidente del Consorcio de Toledo, Manuel Santolaya, está compuesto por «vigas de las más antiguas de España».

Santolaya ha explicado que se trata de un «sitio excepcional» que tiene relación con el palacio de la Aljafería de Zaragoza y la iglesia de San Millán de Segovia y que incluso alguna de sus piezas, en concreto una alacena mudéjar, se encuentra en el museo británico.

Detalle de uno de los rincones de la Casa del Temple
Detalle de uno de los rincones de la Casa del Temple– LUNA REVENGA

El propietario de este antiguo palacio islámico, declarado Bien de Interés Cultural, Amador Valdés, ha asegurado que «seguramente es la casa más antigua de Toledo mejor conservada», en la que destacan sus zócalos de pinturas bícromas y sus estructuras de madera, «las mejores conservadas in situ del país», en las que han aparecido policromías que estaban ocultas tras la última restauración.

Casa del Temple
Casa del Temple– LUNA REVENGA

El propietario ha indicado que hay muchas leyendas que relacionan la Casa del Temple con la Orden de los Templarios pero ninguna oficial y ha dicho que en el siglo XIX, el historiador Amador de los Ríos ya denominó este espacio como Casa del Temple, al igual que Benito Pérez Galdós en su novela «Ángel Guerra».

Durante el siglo XIX, se conservaba además de la Casa del Temple, que ocupaba «toda la manzana», la Casa de la Parra, hoy desaparecida, que era donde se ubicaba «supuestamente la alacena del Temple», exportada a Londres tiempo después.

in ABC.es

A bird’s eye view of Cressing Temple

Posted on Updated on


This aerial shot shows a different view of an ancient site built for the Knights Templar.

A camera mounted on a drone took a series of photos of Cressing Temple, between Braintree and Witham, showing the oak barns built during the 13th century, and the Tudor walled garden.

Rebecca Ashbey, a horticulturalist at Essex County Council, which owns the site, said: “The photos were taken by a member of staff who had a drone for Christmas.

“The pictures really show the structure of the garden off to great effect.”


in maldonandburnhamstandard.co.uk

Teasers para o Cursos Livre – Templários e Templarismo na Universidade Lusófona

Posted on Updated on

Neo_templarUniversidade Lusófona Curso Livre – Templários

Parte 1 – A Cavalaria – Da Milícia armada à Milícia de Cristo

– A Cavalaria Origem, fundamentos, contexto; Heranças: a Instituição, Equites Romano, invasões bárbaras; migração da Tradições Oriente para Ocidente, do homem armado a cavalo ao Cavaleiro; Heranças: Metafísica, migração do ideário de Cavalaria da Ásia para a Europa pelo Médio Oriente (séculos VI a XI); Cruzadas; a Nova Milícia de Bernardo de Claraval

– Templários O Cavaleiro-Monge; motivações, fundamento espiritual, a simbólica, raízes Bíblicas do arquétipo, veterotestamentárias e neotestamentária, raízes tradicionais e os três votos, raízes esotéricas e iniciáticas, o selo templário

– Cristianismo Esotérico História do Cristianismo e heresias (gnosticismos, maniqueísmo, catarismo); Cristianismo Copta; Escola de Alexandria, fundamentos, tratados e teologia; Islão Místico; Pontes entre Templários, Cristianismo Copta e o Islão; Noção da Gradação na Exegese Bíblica, três níveis e três Igrejas; a corrente Joanita e sua simbólica; Jerusalém e a Nova Jerusalém

– Traços de Cristianismo Esotérico na Ordem do Templo Arquitectura, iconografia, literatura, liturgia.

Parte 2 – A Nova Cavalaria – Dos Templários aos Neo-Templários – Fundamentos Iniciáticos A Pirâmide Social e as Vias Iniciáticas

– Sobrevivências históricas (1317-1319) Montesa, Calatrava e Alcântara, São João, Teutónica; Míticas: as lendas, Escócia, Arménia; o caso Português, Ordem de Cristo, papel da Ordem de Avis, o século XIV do Templo.

– Século XVIII Surgimento da Maçonaria Especulativa, breve história e contextualização, papel da Nobreza, tutela Cavaleiresca; Estrita Observância Templária; Ordem da Águia Negra e Ordem de São Lázaro; Rectificação da Maçonaria (Wilhelmsbad, 1778); criação da Lenda Templária, Discurso de Ramsey, Escocismo, templarismo maçónico e sua origem, consolidação da lenda no século XIX e XX.

– Século XIX Fabré Palaprat e a OSMTJ; a Ordo Templis Orientis e o seu contexto esotérico

– Século XX Efeito das duas Grandes Guerras nos movimentos esotéricos: Maçonaria, Martinismo, Templários; Pós-Guerra e noções de uma Era de Aquário; Neo-Templarismo e seus ramos: da Ordre Renové du Temple ao Templo Solar; Outras linhas neo-Templárias: corrente teosófica, rosicruciana e martinista.

– Século XXI Retrato do panorama actual.


Suicídio colectivo ou assassinato? Ecos do Templo Solar

Os noticiários abriram em choque naquele dia de Outubro de 1994. Meia centena de membros de um grupo neo-Templário foi encontrado morto em múltiplos locais na Suíça e no Canadá num aparente pacto de suicídio colectivo. Ainda decorriam investigações quando novo massacre levou a vida a mais 16 pessoas, três das quais crianças, em Dezembro de 1995, desta vez em França. A década não terminaria sem que novo grupo protagonizasse idêntico pacto no Canadá.

Passadas duas décadas ainda se colocam muitas perguntas sobre as tragédias. O que motivou o pacto? Qual era o conteúdo doutrinal da OTS? Tratava-se de uma seita ou de uma nova expressão de religiosidade? Qual a sua origem e influências. Qual a sua herança nos dias de hoje? A Ordem do Templo Solar entrou já no folclore esotérico-ocultista, com expressões como “trânsito para Sirius” ou “suicídio colectivo” indelevelmente associadas ao fatídico grupo, que tomou os Templários como modelo. Uma tragédia esquecida que vale a pena conhecer. Suicídio colectivo ou assassinato? Venha conhecer a resposta.

troca2Em 1319 D. Dinis consegue concluir favoravelmente as negociações com o Papa João XXII em Sé de Avignon, para a “criação” da nova Milícia de Cristo. Os bens e homens da suspensa Ordem do Templo não passam directamente para a Ordem de Cristo.

Apesar da astúcia do monarca, a evidente desconfiança do pontífice aconselhava a algumas cedências. Efectivamente a sede da nova Ordem foi o castelo de Castro Marim, no Algarve, longe da Tomar Templária. Do mesmo modo a nova cruz, por imposição papal, levará uma cruz latina branca sobreposta, em sinal da bênção apostólica. De modo a “renovar” a direcção da Ordem, D. Dinis procede a uma inteligente manobra de trocas, usando a Ordem de Avis, pelo que o novo Mestre da Milícia de Cristo será o antigo Mestre Martins da Ordem de Avis, entrando em Avis Mestre Martins, antigo chefe do Templo em Portugal, bem como a vasta maioria dos líderes militares Templários do reino.

Terá influência na história a conversão de Avis no reduto último do Templo em Portugal? Qual será a dinâmica entre a recentemente criada Ordem de Cristo com os bens Templários, a Ordem de Avis com a antiga liderança Templária e a Coroa ao longo do século XIV? Estando as pedras no tabuleiro da história desfavoráveis ao Templo e a Avis no início do século, como irão ambas as Ordens terminar um dos séculos mais emblemáticos da história de Portugal?

02 - LUIS DAVID - Coroação de Napoleão

Napoleão Bonaparte e o Templarismo

“Da turbulência criada pela Revolução Francesa, um “filho da Revolução”, Napoleão Bonaparte, subiu ao poder, prometendo difundir os ideais da Revolução para toda a Europa. Depois de conquistar a maioria da Europa continental, fez-se proclamar Imperador. Nesse mesmo ano de 1804, uma nova forma de Templarismo apareceu. A “restaurada” Ordre du Temple [de Fabré Palaprat].

Por motivos só seus, Napoleão Bonaparte aprovou esta “restauração”, tendo mesmo autorizando uma grande cerimónia em Paris, em honra de Molay e todos os outros mártires Templários. Napoleão, ao se tornar imperador, criou uma nova nobreza. Talvez tenha visto esses novos templários como servindo de contrapeso às lojas maçónicas, de quem desconfiava, devido ao seu radicalismo político. Em 1808, através do recrutamento agressivo, a nova Ordem tinha estabelecido Priorados e Comendadorias na maior parte do Grande Império, incluindo Itália e Suíça. Laços com suas origens maçónicas foram cortados, proclamando esta Ordem do Templo a sua autonomia e adesão à religião Católica Apostólica Romana.” [in: comentário num fórum sobre neo-Templarismo]

Quem foi Fabré-Palaprat? Qual o seu papel nos “ressurgimentos” da Ordem do Templo? Onde fundava Palaprat o seu legado? Documentos? Histórias? Mitos?


“Os Templários são os mais excelentes soldados. Vestem um manto branco com uma cruz vermelha e quando vão para a guerra levam à sua frente um estandarte de duas cores chamados balzaus. Cavalgam em silêncio. O primeiro ataque é o mais terrível. Na contenda são os primeiros a entrar. Na retirada – os últimos. Aguardam as ordens do seu Mestre. Quando prontos para a batalha e a trombeta soou, cantam em coro o Salmo de David: “Não a nós, Senhor” ajoelhados no sangue e no pescoço do inimigo, a menos que tenham forçado as suas tropas à retirada completa, ou as tenham totalmente quebrado em pedaços. Caso algum deles, por qualquer motivo, virar as costas para o inimigo, ou sair vivo [de uma derrota], ou pegar em armas contra os cristãos, ele é severamente punido; o manto branco com a cruz vermelha, que é o sinal de sua cavalaria, é retirado com desonra. Será expulso da sociedade dos irmãos, e come sua comida no chão, sem guardanapo, pelo período de um ano. Se os cães o molestam, ele não se atreve a afastá-los. Mas no final do ano, se o Mestre e os irmãos pensam que a sua penitência foi suficiente, devolvem-lhe o cinto de cavaleiro”. [Relato de peregrino a Jerusalém, citado em “The New Knighthood”, por Malcolm Barber


“A decisão de restabelecer os Cavaleiros Templários e, portanto de fundar a Ordem Renovada do Templo, foi tomada por mestres ocultos da tradição, a 5 de Fevereiro de 1962. A primeira etapa de uma longa preparação deu-se em 1968, com o encontro de Raymond Bernard e de um misterioso Jean, descendente dos reis de França, com o “Cardeal Branco”, um dignitário secreto do Templo. Foi ele que transmitiu na Cripta Ferrata, uma cripta secreta da Abadia de San Nilo, num bairro de Roma, a ordenação e a missão de despertar a Ordem, ordenação por sua vez confirmada em Chartres. Esta é a história alegórica de Raymond Bernard, que muitos infelizmente têm tomado de modo literal.

Quando publicou sua “aventura” em 1968, Raymond Bernard transmitiu a ordenação “templária” que teria recebido perto de Roma, a dois dos seus mais próximos, Raymond Devaux e Julien Origas, na cripta da Catedral de Chartres. Dois anos depois fundou a Ordem Renovada do Templo de que será até 1972 o Grão-mestre secreto. A Ordem desenvolve-se primeiro no seio da AMORC [organização de tradição Rosacruz], permitindo-lhe contar em alguns meses com quase mil e quinhentos membros.” [Sérge Caillet, autor de “L’Ordre Rénové du Temple”] Quem foi Raymond Bernard? Quais as fontes documentais que substanciam os seus relatos? Que encontro secreto se deu em Roma e quem era o Cardeal Branco? Que relação há entre os encontros de 1968-70 e o Priorado de Sião, trazido à luz já nos anos 80? Estamos no domínio da História, ou do Mito Urbano?



A Ordem de Cristo não tem graus, templo, rito, insígnia ou passe. Não precisa reunir, e os seus cavaleiros, para assim lhes chamar, conhecem-se sem saber uns dos outros, falam-se sem o que propriamente se chama linguagem. Quando se é escudeiro dela não se está ainda nela; quando se é mestre dela já se lhe não pertence. Nestas palavras obscuras se conta quanto basta para quem, que o queira ou saiba, entenda o que é a Ordem de Cristo — a mais sublime de todas do mundo.

Não se entra para a Ordem de Cristo por nenhuma iniciação, ou, pelo menos, por nenhuma iniciação que possa ser descrita em palavras. Nãos se entra para ela por querer ou por ser chamado; nisto ela se conforma com a fórmula dos mestres: «Quando o discípulo está pronto, o Mestre está pronto também.» E é na palavra «pronto» que está o sentido vário, conforme as ordens e as regras.

Fiel à sua obediência — se assim se pode chamar onde não há obedecer — à Fraternidade de quem é filha e mãe, há nela a perfeita regra de Liberdade, Igualdade, Fraternidade. Os seus cavaleiros—chamemos-lhes sempre assim — não dependem de ninguém, não obedecem a ninguém, não precisam de ninguém, nem da Fraternidade de que dependem, a quem obedecem e de que precisam. Os seus cavaleiros são entre si perfeitamente iguais naquilo que os torna cavaleiros; acabou entre eles toda a diferença que há em todas as coisas do mundo. Os seus cavaleiros são ligados uns aos outros pelo simples laço de serem tais, e assim são irmãos, não sócios nem associados. São irmãos, digamos assim, porque nasceram tais. Na ordem de Cristo não há juramento nem obrigação.

Ela, sendo assim tão semelhante à Fraternidade em que respira, porque, segundo a Regra, «o que está em baixo é como o que está em cima», não é contudo aquela Fraternidade: é ainda uma ordem, embora uma Ordem Fraterna, ao passo que a Fraternidade não é uma ordem.”


Fernando Pessoa e a Filosofia Hermética – Fragmentos do espólio . Fernando Pessoa. (Introdução e organização de Yvette K. Centeno.) Lisboa: Presença, 1985. – 47.

A que Ordem se referia Fernando Pessoa? Qual a sua relação com aquela a que chama a “Ordem Templária de Portugal”? Que outras referências há na sua obra a um Templarismo subjacente à história mítica de Portugal?


“A tomada de Jerusalém foi extremamente sangrenta. A quase totalidade dos habitantes – muçulmanos, judeus e, até, cristãos orientais – foi massacrada. Segundo a Gesta Francorum, um livro de autor anónimo que se crê ter sido escrito por um cruzado, diz que “a carnificina foi tão grande que os nossos homens caminhavam em sangue até aos tornozelos”.

Tomada a cidade, o poder foi entregue a Godofredo de Bolhão. Depois de re cusar o título de rei, dizendo que jamais usaria uma coroa de ouro na cidade onde Nosso Senhor usara uma coroa de espinhos, viria a aceitar apenas o título de Protector do Santo Sepulcro. Infelizmente, porém, o “reinado” de Godofredo durou pouco. Uma estranha doença, que muitos consideraram consequência de um envenenamento, matá-lo-ia em 1100. Desta forma, foi o seu irmão Balduíno a assumir o poder. Sem os pruridos de Godofredo, aceitou a coroa e o trono de Jerusalém como Balduíno I.

Após a morte sem deixar descendência de Balduíno I, o reino de Jerusalém atravessou uma fase complicada. A primeira ideia foi entregar a coroa a Eustáquio, irmão mais velho de Godofredo e de Balduíno. As movimentações de Joscelin de Courtenay, porém, levaram a um volte-face. No trono acabaria Balduíno de Bourcq, primo dos dois irmãos, que reinaria como Balduíno II.

Seria este monarca a receber, logo no seu primeiro ano no trono, a visita de Hugo de Payens que, com outros oito cavaleiros do condado de Champagne, se foi oferecer para garantir a segurança nas estradas para a Terra Santa dos peregrinos cristãos que, provenientes da Europa, pretendiam chegar a Jerusalém. Os ataques dos salteadores (não apenas muçulmanos mas, em muitos casos, também cristãos) faziam inúmeras vítimas e, apesar de múltiplas tentativas, nunca os cruzados tinham conseguido garantir a segurança da costa até à cidade santa.

Balduíno aceitou a proposta e entregou aos nove cavaleiros instalações no Monte do Templo, no local onde, diz a tradição, estariam instaladas as cavalariças do rei Salomão. A localização das suas instalações originais viria a justificar parte do nome da ordem.”, in Revista Focus [José Colaço]

Castelo Soure

“Segundo o frei Bernardo da Costa, na sua História da Militar Ordem de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo publicada em 1771, foi na Fonte Arcada que os templários instalaram a sua primeira sede em território português. Tal facto leva a colocar em dúvida a possibilidade de, nessa primeira fase, o seu principal papel ser militar – já que Penafiel ficava bastante longe da frente de combate contra os mouros.

Dois anos volvidos, a sede dos templários muda de local e, agora sim, parece ter já um papel militar. As instalações ficam, agora, no castelo de Soure, também doado por D. Teresa. Situado na confluência de três rios (Arunca, Anços e Arão, todos afluentes do Mondego), Soure funciona como guarda avançada à cidade de Coimbra. Por curiosidade, será às portas deste castelo que, em 1144, os templários sofrem uma das suas mais pesadas derrotas em Portugal, perante as tropas de Abu Zakaria, vizir de Santarém.

A lista, a partir daqui, engrossa rapidamente – muito em especial após a independência e a subida ao trono da dinastia de Borgonha. Esta simpatia dos descendentes do Conde D. Henrique pela Ordem do Templo poderá estar relacionada com a proximidade entre a nobreza da Borgonha e a de Champagne – de onde vieram os templários originais – ou com o facto de o grande ideólogo do templarismo, Bernardo de Claraval, ser ele próprio um borgonhês de nobres famílias.” in Revista Focus [José Colaço]


“No dia 22 de março de 1312, o papa Clemente V dissolveu a Ordem dos Templários, alegando degeneração e heresia. A ordem havia sido criada em Jerusalém, em 1118, para proteger os peregrinos, mas acabou virando uma das mais poderosas e misteriosas organizações da Idade Média.

Tesouros afundados, atos heróicos, ritos religiosos secretos e uma forte crença comum: este o material de que são feitos os mitos. A Ordem dos Cavaleiros do Templo era uma das mais poderosas e enigmáticassociedades secretas da Idade Média.

Fundado em torno de 1119, em Jerusalém, por cruzados franceses, o grupo nasceu para proteger peregrinos cristãos que empreendiam a longa e perigosa jornada até a Terra Santa. Séculos mais tarde, o tema dos templários foi enfocado por Umberto Eco em seu livro O Pêndulo de Foucault.

Com rituais de iniciação, voto de pobreza e uma dedicação espartana, os templários se tornaram monges-guerreiros, detentores de profundo conhecimento esotérico e donos de enorme fortuna.”, in Folha de São Paulo, 2007

Que incorrecções estão expressas neste artigo? Qual foi então a história da fundação, ascensão e queda dos Templários? Como foi a sua tragédia tomada como um exemplo que inspirou inúmeros pelos séculos dos séculos?


“Por meio de longas e inomináveis sessões de torturas, foram arrancadas dos prisioneiros confissões detalhadas, confirmando quase a totalidade das acusações. O rolo de pergaminho contendo a transcrição dos interrogatórios de 1307 chega a vinte e dois metros e vinte centímetros. Confessaram práticas bizarras. Certamente, aquilo que constava nos altos de acusação. Admitiram que, durante os ritos de iniciação, renegavam Cristo três vezes e cuspiam no crucifixo. “Os noviços “eramdesnudados e beijados in posterior parte” spine dorsi”; ou nas nádegas, e no umbigo e nos lábios. Terminada a cerimónia começavam uma orgia. Qual a sustentação real das acusações? Em grande parte surgiram de preconceitos, catalogados por Guilherme de Nogaret.

O mistério com que os Templários protegiam seus castelos alimentava a desconfiança popular há tempos. Circulava a suspeita de que, devido a aparente riqueza da Ordem, produziam ouro por meio da alquimia.

Num primeiro momento, o papa hesitou em cumprir o pedido de Filipe, o Belo, que desejava a imediata extinção do Templo. Mas suas relações com os Templários estavam abaladas. Recentemente, havia entrado em conflito com o mestre Jacques De Molay. Clemente V, preocupado com a inatividade dos freires franceses, pretendia chegaram a organizar uma cruzada, que seria conduzida por Carlos de Valois, irmão de Filipe, o Belo, e que reuniria Templários e Hospitalários na mesma campanha. Aparentemente, seu verdadeiro objetivo era fundir as duas confrarias (Almeida, 1910: 333). O mestre De Molay, desconfiando das intenções do pontífice, recusou-se a dar prosseguimento ao plano.” in Os Templários no Seu Auge, por Carlos Navarro


“Não é de estranhar que D. Gualdim Pais tenha feito edificar monumentos que apontassem claramente um referente mítico, imitando a imagem do Santo Sepulcro de Jerusalém ou da Cúpula do Rochedo, ambos templos de planta centrada. Convém esclarecer que, uma “cópia” ou “imitação” arquitectónica funcionava sempre de um modo muito vago no quadro da representação medieval, chegando a encontrar construções bastantes diferentes, mas com significados similares, e outros praticamente idênticos, contudo, com funções distintas. A dita “cópia”, observa Paulo Pereira, não passava, portanto, de um jogo onde se procurava aproximar uma ou mais características fundamentais do edifício-modelo e em Tomar encontramo-lo certamente na sua planta centralizada. Deste modo, transpunham-se as barreiras geográficas, económicas e culturais com a construção de um templo que evocasse outro, mesmo com uma distância considerável a separá-los. Ao construir a Charola, os Templários tinham como objectivo simbólico a realização da chamada “viagem ao centro” ou “orientação espiritual”, conseguindo assim atingir “uma vitória sobre o espaço e sobre o tempo, visto que o seu objectivo se identifica ritualmente com o Objectivo supremo, com o centro supremo, (…) com a Jerusalém celeste e a Igreja”.

Desta forma, pode-se aludir que a charola templária tenta representar os dois principais edifícios de Jerusalém medieval: o Templo de Salomão, que não é mais do que o reflexo da Cúpula do Rochedo e o Santo Sepulcro.” in Carlos Emanuel Sousa Santos, “Charola Templária de Tomar: Jerusalém Perdida”

Curso Livre – Templários e Templarismo na Universidade Lusófona

Posted on


Curso – Templários e Templarismo


Professores: Alexandre Honrado | Luís de Matos

Curso presencial

6 Quintas-feiras das 20h às 22h
12 horas lectivas
Início a 4 de Fevereiro
Custo: 75 Euros


Extinta há quase 700 anos, a Ordem Militar e Religiosa dos Pobres Cavaleiros de Cristo e do Templo de Salomão, vulgo Ordem do Templo, tem características históricas únicas e é quase um mito urbano.

Entre outros atributos, é-lhes conferida a responsabilidade de esconder o Santo Graal, administrar uma fortuna enorme, de serem uma sociedade secreta, capaz dos atos mais bárbaros para angariar poder

De pequeno grupo com apenas nove membros em 1118, em menos de dois séculos transformou-se na mais poderosa organização da Europa, com propriedades em vários países e com uma capacidade financeira que lhe permitiu, até, emprestar dinheiro a monarcas. Independente das hierarquias religiosas da época, na dependência direta do Papa, a Ordem do Templo gerou tantas invejas que não admira que, quando Filipe, o Belo, rei de França, resolveu persegui-la, tenham sido muitos os que a ele se aliaram.

A sua dramática extinção inspirou, também, histórias arrebatadas.

Este curso permite viajar até aos subterrâneos da memória, para conhecer, numa visão dupla, os “Templários e Templarismo” com Alexandre Honrado e Luís Matos, dois estudiosos do passado com visões distintas do mesmo tema.



Livro “Breve História Sobre a Ordem do Templo em Portugal” na Amazon: 


Vatican Publishes Study on 4th Crusade

Posted on Updated on


A study of the famous 4th Crusade of the 13th century — which was called to rescue Jerusalem from Islam but resulted instead in a sack of Christian Constantinople — has been published by the Vatican.

The Vatican Publishing House has released a volume collecting the addresses in various languages from a conference held in 2004 on the 4th Crusade. That year was the 800th anniversary of the crusade that went awry. The 13th-century event is considered to have cemented the Great Schism with the Orthodox that had occurred in 1054.

The 2004 conference was organized by the Pontifical Committee of Historical Sciences, in collaboration with the Institute of Byzantine History of the University of Athens and the Institute of Byzantine and Neo-Greek Studies of the University of Vienna.

The volume is titled “The 4th Crusade Revisited” and it has an interdisciplinary scope, including considerations of the political, anthropological and theological implications of the crusade.

Monsignor Walter Brandmuller, president of the pontifical committee, wrote in the prologue that the volume was edited with the intention of “contributing to the completion of the historians’ great project and to the purification of memory, which has been indicated by the path that has to lead to the coexistence of men, nations and religions, characterized by reciprocal understanding and benevolence.”

He said the congress welcomed the invitation of the Pope, convinced that a “serious and impartial writing of history” without prejudices and based in “rigorous historical method” would be an indispensable tool in reaching this goal.

The volume brings together texts prepared by people of various nations and religious creeds, seeking what they call the step from suspicion to truth in charity.

Swastikas Fly, Nazis Parade Again at Bayreuth: Shirley Apthorp

Posted on Updated on

Swastika banners unfurl over the stage, Nazi SS officers goose step in formation. It has been awhile since Bayreuth looked like this. Scattered boos from the audience augment the score of Richard Wagner’s “Parsifal.”

A new era is dawning at Bayreuth’s annual Wagner festival. And parts of it look unnervingly like the old one. That is Stefan Herheim’s whole idea. The Norwegian stage director tells “Parsifal” as an image-laden trip through German history.

The opera becomes a narrative of Wagner’s reception, from the composer’s troubled youth to the political wrangles of the German republic in Bonn and Berlin. Most of the action plays out in Bayreuth itself, the living room of Villa Wahnfried, Wagner’s house, mutating with the passage of time. In the end, Herheim holds up a mirror to the audience itself. Literally.

The booers numbered only a handful amid an enthusiastic public. The July 26 opening of the Bayreuth Festival drew a glittering crowd. Chancellor Angela Merkel; former Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher; Guido Westerwelle, the head of Germany’s Free Democrats; and an elite selection of television and stage personalities drew gaping onlookers in the afternoon bustle before the six-and-a-half-hour performance began.

Tottering on the arm of his statuesque daughter Katharina, 30, who is tipped to take over the festival together with half- sister Eva Wagner-Pasquier, 63, in August, 88-year-old Wolfgang Wagner welcomed the big-name visitors.

The Bayreuth public, exhausted by years of family dramas and power struggles, is ready for a change. That was evident in the warm response to Herheim’s frenetically didactic “Parsifal.”

Nazi Legacy

Not all of Herheim’s gestures are new. Indeed, many have become almost obligatory for provincial German houses dutifully working through a post-1968 approach to the Nazi’s legacy of dubious Wagner interpretation. But the richness and psychological depth of Herheim’s images and the seamless musicality with which he and his team have knitted them together add up to an evening of breathtaking impact.

Wagner’s tale — the ignorant Parsifal meets the knights of the Holy Grail, sets out on a quest, resists temptation, vanquishes the evil Klingsor, wins wisdom, redeems and replaces the ailing King Amfortas — is layered with complex reflection. The course of history, the nature of death and birth, the role of sexuality and eroticism in society, and the question of individual identity are all explored. It could be tedious if it were not so exquisitely wrought.

Seduction Scene

At the center of the stage is a bed, deathbed of Parsifal’s mother, place of his birth, scene of seduction. The prompt box is Wagner’s grave, or the home of the Holy Grail, a place of mysterious magnetism. Herheim’s handiwork is dazzling, Heike Scheele’s sets are a work of genius. Hours of stage magic unfold with dazzling skill.

Italian conductor Daniele Gatti makes his Bayreuth debut memorable for what may be the slowest “Parsifal” on record (4 hours and 40 minutes, not counting the intervals). To his credit, it seldom drags, and the high points burn with focused intensity. The Bayreuth orchestra does not play its best for Gatti, and neither transparency nor sharp edges feature prominently. Instead, he opts for organic development, lush curves and whispered pianissimi. Gatti listens attentively to his singers, and makes sure that we hear their every word.

Animal Power

These singers are worth hearing. In the title role, Christopher Ventris offers no-holds-barred heroism and seductively effortless sounds delivered with charisma and command. Detlef Roth’s Amfortas is worldly wise and rich in detail, Kwangchul Youn’s Gurnemanz makes every word of his marathon monologues grippingly emotional, and if Mihoko Fujimura occasionally screeches a top note or slurs her diction, her performance as Kundry has such animal power and psychotic diversity that it’s worth a small vocal trade-off.

For Katharina Wagner, who is plowing ahead with the business of marketing her own image to the universe as Bayreuth’s blonde savior, this is a promising start to an era that is already her own in all but official terms. Whether one successful staging is enough to baptize herself a world-class festival director is open to debate. Half-sister Eva was conspicuously absent from the opening-night celebrations, and the degree to which she will play a role in Katharina’s festival is equally open to speculation.

Plenty is wrong in Wagnerian Bayreuth, but after Friday it is clear that some things can still be entirely right. (Rating: ****)

“Parsifal” plays again on Aug. 6, 16 and 28. All performances are sold out. For more information, go to http://www.bayreuther-festspiele.de. The festival is sponsored by Goldman Sachs Group Inc. and Benecke Interior Design.

by Shirley Apthorp in Bloomberg

The devil wear Prada…the Pope doesn’t…

Posted on

Dripping in gold and with his cool white cottons and trendy headgear, the head of the Catholic church could easily be mistaken for the king of bling.

But it seems the designer look is not a godly one…

The Pope does not wear Prada, his official journal has revealed.

Benedict XVI is not a man who fusses about fashion – despite ­rumours he wears £700 red loafers from the Milan fashion house, the Osservatore Romano said.

Instead, he dresses according to a ‘precise liturgical code’.

‘Naturally, the attribution was false. The banality of our times does not even recognise that the colour red has a clear sacrificial significance,’ said a spokesman.

The pontiff, voted ‘accessoriser of the year’ by Esquire magazine last year, was first spotted wearing the red shoes in 2006.

Pope watchers quickly speculated they were made by Prada – a claim unchallenged by the Vatican until now.

‘These rumours do not tally with the simple and sober man who, on the day of his election to the papacy, addressed the faithful and the whole world with the sleeves of his modest black sweater showing,’ his spokesman said.

He did not reveal the real maker but reports claimed the shoes were the work of Adriano Stefanelli, who has designed two pairs of leather loafers for winter and summer.

But, to ensure the debate does not resurrect itself, the Osservatore Romano concluded: ‘The Pope does not wear Prada – but Christ. His worries are not about accessories – but the essential.’


Posted on Updated on

We are given the story of the ministry of John the Baptist, called the Precursor or Forerunner of the Lord, with some variation of detail, in the three synoptic Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, as well as in the Book of John. Luke tells us of the birth of John the Baptist in a town of Judaea, about six months before the birth of the Saviour. The attendant circumstances, which we have already recounted under the headings of and , his parents, suggest the miraculous and wonderful. The New Testament tells us nothing of John’s early years, but we know that his pious, virtuous parents must have reared the boy with care, conscious always of the important work to which he was appointed, and imbuing him with a sense of his destiny.
When John began final preparations for his mission, he was probably in his thirty-second year. He withdrew into the harsh, rocky desert beyond the Jordan to fast and pray, as was the ancient custom of holy men. We are told that he kept himself alive by eating locusts and wild honey and wore a rough garment of camel’s hair, tied with a leathern girdle. When he came back to start preaching in the villages of Judaea, he was haggard and uncouth, but his eyes burned with zeal and his voice carried deep conviction. The Jews were accustomed to preachers and prophets who gave no thought to outward appearances, and they accepted John at once; the times were troubled, and the people yearned for reassurance and comfort. So transcendant was the power emanating from the holy man that after hearing him many believed he was indeed the long-awaited Messiah. John quickly put them right, saying he had come only to prepare the way, and that he was not worthy to unloose the Master’s sandals. Although his preaching and baptizing continued for some months during the Saviour’s own ministry, John always made plain that he was merely the Forerunner. His humility remained incorruptible even when his fame spread to Jerusalem and members of the higher priesthood came to make inquiries and to hear him. “Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand,”-this was John’s oft-repeated theme. For the evils of the times his remedy was individual purification. “Every tree,” he said, “that is not bringing forth good fruit is to be cut down and thrown into the fire.” The reformation of each person’s life must be complete—the wheat must be separated from the chaff and the chaff burned “with unquenchable fire.”

The rite of baptism, a symbolic act signifying sincere repentance as well as a desire to be spiritually cleansed in order to receive the Christ, was so strongly emphasized by John that people began to call him “the baptizer.” The Scriptures tell us of the day when Jesus joined the group of those who wished to receive baptism at John’s hands. John knew Jesus for the Messiah they had so long expected, and at first excused himself as unworthy. Then, in obedience to Jesus, he acquiesced and baptized Him. Although sinless, Jesus chose to be baptized in order to identify Himself with the human lot. And when He arose from the waters of the Jordan, where the rite was performed, “the heavens opened and the Spirit as a dove descended. And there came a voice from the heavens, Thou art my beloved Son, in Thee I am well pleased” (Mark i, 11).

John’s life now rushes on towards its tragic end. In the fifteenth year of the reign of the Roman emperor, Tiberias Caesar, Herod Antipas was the provincial governor or tetrarch of a subdivision of Palestine which included Galilee and Peraea, a district lying east of the Jordan. In the course of John’s preaching, he had denounced in unmeasured terms the immorality of Herod’s petty court, and had even boldly upbraided Herod to his face for his defiance of old Jewish law, especially in having taken to himself the wife of his half-brother, Philip. This woman, the dissolute Herodias, was also Herod’s niece. Herod feared and reverenced John, knowing him to be a holy man, and he followed his advice in many matters; but he could not endure having his private life castigated. Herodias stimulated his anger by lies and artifices. His resentment at length got the better of his judgment and he had John cast into the fortress of Machaerus, near the Dead Sea. When Jesus heard of this, and knew that some of His disciples had gone to see John, He spoke thus of him: “What went you to see? A prophet? Yea, I say to you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written: Behold I send my angel before thy face, who shall prepare thy way before thee. For I say to you, amongst those that are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist” (Matthew xi, 10-12).

Herodias never ceased plotting against the life of John, who was not silenced even by prison walls. His followers now became even more turbulent. To Herodias soon came the opportunity she had long sought to put an end to the trouble-maker. On Herod’s birthday he gave a feast for the chief men of that region. In Matthew xiv, Mark vi, and Luke ix, we are given parallel accounts of this infamous occasion which was to culminate in John’s death. At the feast, Salome, fourteen-year-old daughter of Herodias by her lawful husband, pleased Herod and his guests so much by her dancing that Herod promised on oath to give her anything that it was in his power to give, even though it should amount to half his kingdom. Salome, acting under the direction and influence of her wicked mother, answered that she wished to have the head of John the Baptist, presented to her on a platter. Such a horrible request shocked and unnerved Herod. Still, he had given his word and was afraid to break it. So, with no legal formalities whatever, he dispatched a soldier to the prison with orders to behead the prisoner and return with it immediately. This was quickly done, and the cruel girl did not hesitate to accept the dish with its dreadful offering and give it to her mother. John’s brief ministry was thus terminated by a monstrous crime. There was great sadness among the people who had hearkened to him, and when the disciples of Jesus heard the news of John’s death, they came and took the body and laid it reverently in a tomb. Jesus, with some of his disciples, retired “to a desert place apart,” to mourn.

The Jewish historian Josephus, giving further testimony of John’s holiness, writes: “He was indeed a man endued with all virtue, who exhorted the Jews to the practice of justice towards men and piety towards God; and also to baptism, preaching that they would become acceptable to God if they renounced their sins, and to the cleanness of their bodies added purity of soul.” Thus Jews and Christians unite in reverence and love for this prophet-saint whose life is an incomparable example of both humility and courage.


Saint John the Baptist, The Precursor. Scriptural Saint. Celebration of Feast Day is June 24. Taken from “Lives of Saints”, Published by John J. Crawley & Co., Inc.